Thursday, May 27, 2010

Reconstruction Tips: Flukes Part 4

Yet another installment of...

Craig brings you the next chapter of his...

Flukes go on Whales... NOT in your Art!

Part: 4

Flukes of times past...

Part 1- I decided to try and create some palaeo-art for New Zealand Palaeontologist Ewan Fordyce. This was unrequested art, and this is probably a good thing considering what I first produced! Find out the HUGE mistake I made and the first lesson you should learn from my folly.

Part 2- After regrouping from my first embarrassing version of the Shark Toothed Dolphin, I proceeded to try and rework it. However in this second attempt my strengths and preferences working on Dinosaurs created an odd reptilian-whale hybrid. This has yet another key lesson to learn here.`

Part 3- Tracking down as many references as I could get my hands on, I reworked the "Dolphinsauriod" into something that roughly resembled a Shark Toothed Dolphin! Find out how important references were to my process...

Now for Flukes of times present!

So I'd managed to get my Squalodon looking something like a Dolphin should. Showing it to Dr. Fordyce I got my first passing grade on the restoration! It got a C- so to speak. All the details were wrong, but I'd gotten the general layout right. Which was a first!

However my set of renders were not overly helpful for Dr. Fordyce to go into the models details. Like this one above, all my renders were in a 3D environment, which I quickly learned weren't useful for critiques. I was going to need something better for the good doctor to look at...

This is the format I came up with. A schematic of my Shark Toothed Dolphin from ever basic view available.

Rule #5 of Scientific Restorations: Before getting your piece reviewed by an expert make sure you prepare some easy to approach material for them to look at. If you can (or have the time to) make a schematic view of your creature. This allows the expert to look at preciously what you are doing in your restorations, and thus give you useful feedback.

Dr. Fordyce much preferred these to my original in water shots.

I for the first time got some immediate feedback directly on my model. Before I'd been given some verbal suggestions, but with print outs of the schematic Dr. Fordyce could directly mark where and often what he wanted the Dolphin to look like.

So with these modifications in mind I set off to work on upgrading my mark ;P

By this point in late 2009 I had been making some big breakthroughs across the board in my 3Ding (in large part thanks to ART Evolved). I now had a better method of creating underwater effects, which I promptly plopped my Squalodon into.

By now I also had a firm grasp on 3D rigging, so the Shark Toothed Dolphin became my first model to be rigged by a single skeleton! (I typically rig each part separately, and simply pose them relative to each other).

Even before Dr. Fordyce's changes, my Squalodon was starting to look pretty sweet!

With the changes this is what it looked like. I hadn't managed to get in the neck folds Dr. Fordyce had wanted (and I still haven't...), but tried to tweak everything else.


I got a B. Which was huge for me. Still not publication worthy, but Dr. Fordyce was starting to believe he might want to use my Squalodon for his description!

I got a very cool anatomy lesson on the very precise details of how he thought these whales went together. From this point I was armed with the most up to date view on Squalodon ribs, flippers, and echo locating melon organ.

This was the "final" version (at least as of the time I write this).

Panorama 13

Before I took this version in to Dr. Fordyce I wanted to test out my than new direct fossil comparison technique. This was the second 3D model I tried it on.

So taking the skull above, I cut it out of this photo and than laid it over my model semi-transparent.

I was amazed to discover it was a perfect match! Through my hard manual work, and input from Dr. Fordyce, I'd modelled my Dolphin exactly in line with the fossil. Even most of the teeth were the same! Though I will never be waiting to the end of the modelling process to do this test ever again!!!

Showing it to Dr. Fordyce, I got the highest mark to date. An A-!!!

Apart from the neck wrinkles and removing some of the model induced lines from the skull area, this Squalodon met with Dr. Fordyce's standards!

It was now time to develop a scene for this critter to steal!

Building some test Penguins I toyed with updating the main picture of Squalodon used at the University of Otago. Sadly, Dr. Fordyce has asked me not to post this picture, but it is of two (older style) Squalodons chasing some of the giant penguins that lived alongside them.

This was the "final" test shot I came up with. In principle Dr. Fordyce rather liked it. Some of the scene, like the Dolphin, need some fine tuning (the bubbled and Penguins basically), but overall this is the direction I'll be going in with the final piece.
This is now currently where the project stands. It has been on pause since December 2009. When is the final piece due? I hear you asking. We are not sure.
At moment I need to do some work fixing the Squalodon's neck, but overall we are awaiting Dr. Fordyce getting the chance to finish his publication. However hopefully that day will come soon. Until it does though, I'm forced to leave you and Flukes on this art note.
Don't despair though. I have a side part to Flukes about my experience working with Dr. Fordyce, and some suggestions on how to start doing work for actual palaeontologists. So watch for this Going Pro edition of Flukes soon!

Philosofossilising- What is Palaeo-Art? (Craig Part 1)

This is a reply to the question:
What is Palaeo-Art?

This is an individual opinion on this topic. To read a number of different peoples' answer to this question click this link here. If you have your own answer, read the last paragraph of this post for details on how to get yours posted.

Craig Dylke answering the question above this time around. Though my answer seemed simple in my head, it has proven rather complex and difficult to capture in writing. This is just the introduction of a much larger essay I have been working on for 2 weeks now. I may or may not finish the rest depending on how people respond to my slightly controversial view of Palaeo-art.

My definition of Palaeo-art is:

It is any piece of work created through human effort that causes viewers to reconnect with (or more to the point re imagine) the prehistoric past.

Okay, easy enough, right? Any piece of art that invokes prehistory in people's imagination. In principle this is a simple enough premise. It is when the philosophy and semantics of this all come to bear I'm left with a rather interesting definition of Palaeo-art.

The biggest problem with my view of Palaeo-art is that it rests on 1. Prehistory and 2. more to the point people's understanding and connection with this "Prehistory" concept. None of us has ever seen it or been there before. This lack of tangibility with deep time becomes the fundamental issue in defining Palaeo-art.

From a pure knowledge point of view our understanding of prehistory comes from the scientific method. Which begs the question how important is science to Palaeo-art?

Science is an important part of the equation in Palaeo-art, but the extent of this science doesn't have to go as deep as many would hope, I suspect wish. The science is more of an artistic "flavour", and need only be added so much that the subject matter of a piece (the organisms) be recognizable as being "prehistoric" in nature. There is as much a cultural component to Palaeo-art as there is science.

These pictures are from here, here, there, and here (I do not endorse, nor have I read, the sites they are from. They simply came up in an image search of "Dinosaur" on google)

For example all the above images are instantly recognizable as both being Dinosaurs, and thus being of something "Prehistoric". However the majority of us here on this site know this isn't true, at least in reality (aka scientific terms). They are images that loosely draw on elements of real Dinosaurs, and thus conjure an association. In the realm of science they'd be torn to shreds, and look nothing like their flesh and blood name sakes would have in life.

Yet can we discount this cultural power when considering Palaeo-art? If anyone can tell you these pictures are of animals from a long time ago, how does this make these pictures any more or less valuable than scientifically accurate pieces by the likes of Gregory Paul or Charles Knight? If anything some modern scientific understandings of prehistoric animals are almost too alien for the public to accept (feathered Dinosaurs being an example that jumps to mind).

You could argue that my above prehistorically "inaccurate" pieces invoke a fantasy prehistory rather than anything resembling the real past, and thus they are not prehistoric renderings at all. However I'd be careful before making such an argument. It is a trap... for you!

I've noticed many people would like to have something about Palaeo-art being work that adheres to absolute science. This is probably what is going to differentiate my definition from many. I argue, on pretty solid grounds, you can not have a "perfect scientific restoration" of any extinct fossil creature at all, and so to define Palaeo-art as requiring such accuracy is paradoxical.

There are too many unknown variables with the creatures and times solely known from the fossil record. These unknowns must than be filled in by human imagination, which is the realm of art not science. At the same time these leaps of imagination can be completely tempered by science. However it is important to keep in mind this is not the same as having science fill in these holes!

This creativity is not just restricted to artworks, it finds its way into every step of palaeontology. Right from the time fossils are discovered, dug up, described, and finally conjured in art (painted, sculpted, etc.) there has been a lot of human creativity applied to interpreting the fossils through out these processes. This is part of what makes palaeontology so much fun, but also what makes it frustrating.

Yet I don't think we should despair in face of all this. Rather I think we should rejoice! Part of what makes Palaeo-art so much fun and so rewarding is that you can connect people with the MANY real chunks of science by filling in the unknown gaps with your own imagination. Your art becomes the closest thing we have to a time machine, and I think that is just awesome!

This concludes my general definition. It was just my thesis for a much larger essay. I go into the various genres of Palaeo-art I feel exist (Fossil Preparation, Skeletal Reassembly, Scientific Reconstructions, Pop Culture, and Abstract/Symbolism). I also address the problems with science as a pure basis for Palaeo-art. If any of these interest you, just let me know, and I'll finish them up and post them!

ART Evolved is very interested in other opinions on this topic, and would welcome your answer to this question. If you would like to enter an article on "What is Palaeo-art", please read the brief criteria here, and send your essay to

New Gregory S. Paul Dino Book

Thanks to Love in the Time of Chasmosaurs for bringing this to my attention!  Looks like Greg Paul has a new book out called The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs.

New Greg Paul art?  I'm interested!  Who's picking this one up?  Amazon's got it here.

Thursday, May 20, 2010

Going Pro: copyright in the new digital world

In the past few posts of Going Pro, we've looked a lot at copyright. Again, a lot of people have opinions, but it's important to see what the legal definitions -and what steps you can take to protect your creations- really entail.

Today though, I want to propose a question.

Suppose you post a nifty image of a prehistoric critter online. It's awesome, you're proud, people give you kudos. You put it under a Creative Commons Licence, the most restrictive one that says your image a) must be attributed to you, b) cannot be altered, c) others cannot profit from it, and otherwise, it's okay to post and share.

1. Then someone copies it. Another blogger. Does their own riff. Are you okay with that?

2. What if they're more famous than you, getting lots of illustration gigs, but they notice it, do their own version, and give you a nod for your cool idea. Still excited, feeling the attention?

3. What if your painting happens to hit the zeitgeist and goes all viral all over the interwebs. Everyone is sharing it. There's a day on Facebook where all the users switch to you image. But you haven't made a dime. What do you do?

We're in interesting territory. Personally, I don't believe overly restricting images (insanely huge watermarks, disabling right-clicking) are helpful to make a successful career anymore. But neither is completely open sharing.

Consider this:

[h/t Boing Boing]

It makes a strong case about question number 3, doesn't it? But how do you capitalize on that image going viral? How does it put food on the table?

I suggest it's how you parlay that viral dinosaur image into getting new contracts.

As for questions number 1 and 2, consider the post-modern, remixed, mash-up, variant-cover culture we live in. Think an Indiana Jones video game is fun? What about Indiana Jones Lego! Like Batman? Sharks? Lightsabers? Ta-da! (artist here) Authoring mash-ups and riffing on others' work is an integral part of pop culture.

Painting gets started at about the 4 minute mark in the video above.
[h/t to Boing Boing, again]

In the past, I've sometimes been the dissenting voice here at Art Evolved about all those posts showing past-art about upcoming themed galleries. I dislike them because sometimes attribution to the artwork cannot be easily found - though yes, as Peter and Craig have pointed out to me, sometimes we attribute an "orphan image" after the post goes up when a reader identifies it.

I'm uncomfortable with those posts because in a world of remixes and fun Photoshopped images, attribution and authorship can sometimes be your only coins to bank on. Literally.

Everyone has different comfort zones. Where do you feel comfortable with your images on questions 1-3 above?

-Glendon Mellow

Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Greetings! from my Version of Planet Earth

Alright, let's talk about the elephant in the room. And by "elephant in the room," I mean "strange new member whose profile is suddenly on the ART Evolved blog." For those of you who spend your time scanning this blog with a fine tooth comb (as I have been known to do), you might be wondering who I am. And for those of you who didn't notice me there and this is the first you've heard of me, you might want to locate your fine tooth comb, because this is one awesome blog; you wouldn't want to miss anything.

So, who am I? You can read a quick overview on my new shnazzy bio on the sidebar, but there really is more than a couple sentences to who I am- I swear. As an artist, I'm a graduate of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts where I received a certificate in Printmaking. I also have an art degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Somewhere along the way during my journey at Penn, however, I got distracted by Earth studies and became enamored with geology and dinosaurs (although to say that I wasn't enamored with dinosaurs and using them in my art before I started at Penn would be a lie). Turned out I wasn't too bad in that field, either, so I picked up geology/paleontology and received a minor in that, too.

I could wax poetic about my philosophy on art or dinosaurs or the study of paleontology. Or I could just show you some of my work. Seems unfair not to give you something visual at this point. This is a paleoart blog after all! This is a drawing that I prepared especially for my debut on ART Evolved:

It's a simple pencil drawing on paper, although it's not done. It's based on one of my recent digital pieces:
Ultimately, as I have written on my blog, I see dinosaurs... EVERYWHERE. They're always lurking around in my brain, chewing on something or telling me they want to be turned into art.

However, if you're not into the marriage of dinosaurs and curiosity/cuteness that is so prevalent in my work, you might enjoy my more traditional work:
This image is also graphite on paper, about 2 inches by 3 inches. I'd show you more of my old school style work, but the illustrations I'm working on now are top secret. Seriously, I'm not kidding. Isn't that cool?!

Finally, if you feel like it just isn't cute enough yet, or even if you're doubting my commitment to create dinosaurs in every medium with every possible bizarre/cute twist, let me show you something I made at my work at Whipped Bakeshop:
I'm aware that the creature on the left is not a dinosaur. Under the guidance of my awesome boss and bakery owner Zoe Lukas, I work as a pastry artist who is lucky enough to enjoy executing the rare but awesome dinosaur pastry order. While I made the dinosaur and pig on top, the cake work beneath is all the work of Zoe and my co-workers (also artists).

I'm really glad to be here at ART Evolved and want to express my gratitude to Craig for extending the invitation, and to all the other amazing artists here, some of which I have come to be good cyber friends with, for allowing me into your community. I hope to post whenever my busy schedule allows, and if you get a craving for some of that cutesy Jenn Hall Art, please pop on over to my blog,where I feature not only my own work, but also the awesome places dinosaurs pop up in pop culture and indie artwork. And if you wanna see some of my non-dinosaurian art (mostly non-dinosaurian anyway), you can visit my website at, and, as always, any questions you might have can be sent to my email at

Nice to meet you all!

~ Jenn Hall

Tuesday, May 18, 2010

Prehistoric Times Update

As you may or may not know, many AE members have recently been having their artwork published in the Prehistoric Times Magazine. Much like submitting art on this site its great free advertising, but unlike this site, PT has the added bonus of seeing your work in print!

Sadly I haven't been able to track down a copy of the latest issue, which has a piece of my own (and a few other AEers) printed within. Hopefully someone will be able to get up a quick post alerting us as to who is in there (apart from me).

So besides this plug for PT's of Xmas past, the upcoming issue is calling for art of two prehistoric critters we've already done galleries for. Meaning if you submitted to our galleries, you have 2 instantly ready submissions for publication in Prehistoric Times!

The Prehistoric Times is looking for Therizinosaurs and Pterosaurs. The due date for submissions is June. 10th. Details for how to go about this can be found here.

The July Gallery: Trilobites!!!

I've been meaning to do this post for a couple weeks now!

A quick reminder that the next upcoming Time Capsule Gallery will be everyone's favourite extinct group of Arthropods the Trilobites! Be sure to tune in for discussions and examples of Trilobite art from the past...
If you're new to the site, we accept any and all artwork submitted that is themed around our gallery topic (again in this case Trilobites OR if you'd like to enter artwork into one of our previous galleries). Just send you submission, along with any accompanying text you'd like, and the link to your website/blog/online picture gallery to our email

Monday, May 17, 2010

Guest Artist Artwork: Dr. Daniel D. Brown's "KT"

We're pleased to present yet another guest artist's work, though you'll have to wait for full profile/bio.

Dr. Daniel Brown has sent us this lovely piece of Palaeo-art...

A piece he calls the "KT"... for some reason :P

You can check out the making of this piece at Dr. Brown's blog Biochemical Soul.

A New Ceratopsian Piece

I "love" looking for work, and it has been going so "well". The one bright side is that I've had time in between failed applications to do some art! As today was a particularly pronounced day of lulls (between 3 rejections! a new record!!!), I decided rather than just revamping models, I'd build a scene with one of them.

Ta-da! I give you my new version of my male Styracosaurs. You can see a bigger version here (as blogger is still not letting pictures I upload enlargen! Anyone know how to fix this problem?)

I'm looking for some serious feedback from you Ceratopsian experts out there. I spent some major time reworking the skull in particular. What else needs anatomical tweaking?

Thursday, May 13, 2010

Late Ichthyosaurs

Just a quick heads up in case you missed it...

We've had several Ichthyosaurs sent in since the gallery first went up. So be sure to pop back and check the new entries out!

Tuesday, May 11, 2010

Philosofossilising- What is Palaeo-Art? (Rachael)

This is a reply to the question:

What is Palaeo-Art?

This is an individual opinion on this topic. To read a number of different peoples' answer to this question click this link here. If you have your own answer, read the last paragraph of this post for details on how to get yours posted.

There’s’ nothing I like more than waffling on about a self indulgence like ‘palaeo-art’.

But ‘ay, there’s the rub’ – I say self indulgence because, from my point of view, that is what it is. If I were a palaeontologist or scientific illustrator 'palaeo-art' would be a tool for communicating fact and self indulgence would be a dirty word (or two). My work would be a way to construct a creature or environment that has long gone - a way to use the evidence as a resource to illustrate a picture of the extinct with accuracy and educated guesses.

As an amateur palaeontologist and artist, ‘palaeo-art’, is a love affair. It’s an all consuming passion that people on the peripherals may think rather odd. Like a tiny god of retrospect I can re-create our prehistoric world or use it to stimulate a new one.

There is joy in research - the gathering of clues to make the work complete. Super- sleuthing in glorious details, where even the most minute creature is as intriguing and miraculous as the giants :- moulding and embracing a landscape where extinct creatures may hunt, play, mate, scratch, let off wind, dream and chase flies.

For me it’s like bringing back the dead. But there are compromises in my work that wouldn’t appear in a serious text book illustration. I will substitute scientific accuracy for composition and drama. Sometimes colour will rage through my work with no relation to reality and sometimes humour will twist facts in order to engage.

(Just a blink of scientific accuracy in this camarasaurus eye. Self indulgent all the way, even though I did extensive research into this amazing creature.)

So there we have it. My philosofossilising waffle for the day.

Definition: ‘Palaeo-Art’ - A pictorial or sculptural affair with the prehistoric dead.

ART Evolved is very interested in other opinions on this topic, and would welcome your answer to this question. If you would like to enter an article on "What is Palaeo-art", please read the brief criteria here, and send your essay to

Monday, May 10, 2010

Philosofossilising- What is Palaeo-Art? Introduction

Welcome to our first philosophy question here on ART Evolved.
What is Palaeo-Art?

Don't expect the answer on this post. In fact don't expect any definitive answer at all. As this is obviously a very subjective topic. However you can (hopefully) expect some different thoughts on the topic, and possibly have these make you think about Palaeo-art in a whole new light!

What we now need are people's answer to this question! If you have your own answer to this question we want to read it!

We are accepting answers from anyone and everyone who would like to answer what they think palaeo-art is! If you are not a member of ART Evolved simply type your "essay" up in a word processor and send it our way at

When we say essay, we don't mean pages and pages of writing with tons of references (though we also won't say no if you're so inclined :P). All we mean is that instead of simply replying "Palaeo-art is X", we want a little more of your reasoning to help people understand (or even be convinced by) your point of view. So a claim of "Palaeo-art is X" should be accompanied by a paragraph or two of support about Y and Z.

If you want art examples to accompany your article we'd love it. Though do please follow our art crediting stance on this site, and include the artist's name with their piece!

For our ART Evolved members we ask you to include the header and footer we are emailing you to keep them all nice, tidy, and easy to read as a series. If you make the cut and paste before typing up your essay you won't even notice the effort!

Guest writers of course do not have to worry about this, as the administrators will frame your post with this for you. In guest writers cases, if there is a specific format or place you'd like pictures or text to go, make it much easier for the administrators and create your article in a word processor rather than an email (where formatting can easily be lost).

So happy philosophising everyone, and check back for some big prehistoric ideas in the next few days!

Saturday, May 1, 2010

The Ichthyosaur Gallery

Welcome to our May gallery...
This time capsule celebrates one of the most interesting groups of reptiles to have ever evolved, the Ichthyosaurs!

Not only were these among the first fossil reptiles ever recognized as being an extinct form of life, but they played an important role in the very establishment of the science of palaeontology. They are a key study in the concept of convergent evolution, in which organisms of completely different origins independently adapt to similar environments by developing similar structures. Ichthyosaurs were the first group of vertebrates to return to the ocean and re-adapt back into an oceanic lifestyle much like those of their fish ancestors (though with the need to still breath air).

Yet they are a group of extinct reptiles which hold many secrets. We have found fossils of basal Ichthyosaurs, but no one can yet say with confidence what exact group of reptiles returned to the sea to give rise to these fish lizards. Just as mysterious as their origin, the extinction of the Ichthyosaurs is equally puzzling. They thrived throughout the Triassic and Jurassic, only to dwindle and disappear by the midway point of the Cretaceous. This makes them one of the only iconic groups of Mesozoic reptiles to go completely extinct before the famous KT extinction. Why that is though, we can not yet say for sure...

So let us venture back into Deep Time and pay our dues to the wonderful fish lizards! (Click on the picture to enlarge it, and click on the names to view the artist's site!)

Generic Ichthyosaur by Sarah Snell-Pym
This Ichthyosaur is based on the fossils I used to see everyday atthe Natural Museum London on my route to the palaeo and minerologylabs. The teeth are angled incorrectly and I have kept some of thebone structures that probably would not have shown through softtissue of the alive creature - the fins and eyes namely. It isn't aspecific type but more my mental image of what these creatures arelike as a whole!

Platyptergius longmani by Sean Craven

Cute Mixosaurus! by Trish

Cymbospondylus by Brett Booth

Chaohusaurus by Luis Perez

Utatsusaurus by Luis Perez

Mixosaurus by Luis Perez

Shonisaurus by Luis Perez

Stenopterygius by Luis Perez

Temnodontosaurus by Luis Perez

Ichthyosaur by Jenn Hall

Cleaning Station by John Meszaros

This ichthyosaur is having its teeth and skin cleaned by a school of helpful Cleaner Belemnites, a hypothetical Jurassic parallel to modern-day Cleaner Wrasse.

Scratching Ichthyosaur by John Meszaros

I created this piece after reading the December 16, 2009 blog at Tetrapod Zoology, where Darren Naish talks about mysterious giant fossil “gutters”. The most likely explanation, according to the accompanying articles, is that these traces were made by marine reptiles plowing their snouts through the mud in search of food, or rubbing against the ground to scratch themselves. In my work I’ve depicted just that—an ichthyosaur scratching against the rocky ground to remove dead skin, inadvertently stirring up a bunch of crustaceans for the local fish to dine on.

Shonisaurus by John Meszaros

Like a lot of folks at ArtEvolved, I was intrigued by Shonisaurus’ mode of life. To me its huge, deep body suggests a slow-moving, plankton feeder. However its narrow skull would have made it difficult to obtain enough food to sustain its massive bulk, and its mostly toothless mouth would have made it difficult to snatch and hang onto fish, belemnites and other, larger prey. The closest modern parallels to the Shonisaurus body type that I could find are the beaked whales, which are generally toothless and feed through suction-feeding by rapidly expanding the throat and depressing the tongue. In fact, if you look at the skulls of many beaked whales (particularly Baird’s and Gray’s) they bear a strikingly long and narrow snout very similar to that of Shonisaurus. Thus I have depicted my shonisaurs with thicker throats to allow for this mode of feeding.

By the way, those two suction cup marks on the foremost Shonisaurus are meant to be feeding scars from a predator similar to a lamprey or cookie-cutter shark.

Triassic Giants by Craig Dylke
This piece is an art tribute to the late Betsy Nicholls, former curator of Marine Reptiles at the Royal Tyrrell Museum. She is most famous for her collection and description of the largest yet known marine reptile Shonisaurus sikanniensis. However I will best remember her as a friendly and enthusiastic spokesperson for her science and the topic of marine reptiles. I only wish I'd had a chance to get to know her better.
I was fortunate to have been able to talk to her after her last (or so I'm told) public address. During this discussion the topic of Shonisaurus feeding came up. Dr. Nicholls was of the firm belief that the adult (toothless) animals were somehow feeding on cephalopods. So it was in this direction I took my piece.
Here a small pod of Shonisaurus sikanniensis plunge into a school of Belemnites. Whether they have dived to extreme depths in the daytime or are simply catching them at night is up to you the viewer.
Mixosaurus by Peter Bond

See the step-by-step creation of this piece here!

Nannopterygius entheciodon by Mo Hassan - graphite pencil illustration

Shonisaurus popularis by Mo Hassan - graphite pencil illustration

Opthalmosaurus icenicus by David Tana

Opthalmosaurus icenicus, an opthalmosaurid that lived during the Middle and Late Jurassic, named for its comparative large eyes. Pen and color pencil on paper, with some Adobe Photoshop touch ups

Here sadly concludes out trip back to the seas of the Mesozoic.
For our next gallery in July, we travel to the seas of the Palaeozoic to explore the...
The long lasting, yet now completely extinct, group of Arthropods: the Trilobites!

If you are interested in participating in ART Evolved's Galleries of Life, send your artwork to, and we will display it. Welcome to the community!